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Use of helmets, different types, archaeology: helmets in the Bible


Different types of armour in the ancient lands of the Bible: archaeology


Different types of shields used in ancient warfare: Bible archaeology


Development of the bow and arrow are weapons of war in ancient Bible lands

Bow & arrow

World's most beautiful weapon?







The Biblical narrative records with unadorned simplicity "Cain rose up against his brother Abel and killed him." The chain reaction to this event has continued down through the centuries until today.  In other words, people have for many thousands of years been trying to perfect the art of killing their enemies. This is warfare.

The art of warfare is to seek to achieve supremacy over the enemy in three fields; 

  • mobility

  • firepower

  • securityGreek warrior

To put it another way, it is the attempt to move troops to engage and injure the enemy without serious injury to oneself.
 To achieve this, soldiers use 

  • surprise

  • maintenance of aim

  • concentration of force

  • coordination of arms

  • security, mobility, and the offensive spirit.

 Incidentally, surprise is generally accepted as the most important of these factors, and it was certainly the most successful tactic used by the ancient Israelites. 

Surprise is, in fact, the ability to move one's forces to engage the enemy at a time, place, and under conditions which he does not expect, for which he is unprepared, and to which he cannot, therefore, react by the most effective application of his own forces and weapons.

The Principles of Warfare

The principles of warfare are illustrated at any boxing match:

The constant movement of the body has a single purpose: to put the boxer in the best position from which he can both attack and at the same time evade the blows of his opponent. The role of one fist is to attack - firepower; of the other, to parry - security. Muhammad Ali and George Foreman To gain this advantage, the boxer has to know where his opponent is - or is likely to be at a given moment - and to seek out his weak spots. In this he is served by his senses:  sight, sound, and touch. His eyes, ears, and hands provide him with the intelligence which, in biblical battles, was provided by reconnaissance units on patrol or at forward observation posts. The action of his fists and other parts of his body is directed by his brain, through the medium of nerves and muscles. 

Their counterpart in warfare is the military commander and his staff, as the brain; their nerves - the communications network; their muscles - trained and disciplined troops.


Mosaic showing boxers, Getty villa

Mosaic of boxers. From the Getty Villa

Ancient Egyptian troops

See Bible Top Ten Warriors for the Bible's most valiant soldiers.


See other fascinating links between 
Archaeology and the Bible


Unknown Australian soldier, World War I

Unknown Australian soldier, World War I

German soldier, Ardenned offensive, World War I

German soldier, Ardennes offensive, World War II

Battle-weary soldier, Vietnam


War  - Old Testament  - Archaeology of The Bible - Bible  Study Resource
The Army, Battles, Weapons, Military Engineering in the Bible

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