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Two columns at the entrance of the Temple of Solomon

Solomon's Temple - scale model, floor plan

Reconstruction of a ziggurat

Ziggurats: amazing Mesopotamian pryamid temples 

Flames

Ancient sacrifice

Woman at the window, ivory plaque

Gods, goddesses

Ancient altar or baamah

High places

Magic sign

Magic

Bright light in the night sky

Tabernacle

Incense burner

Idols in Canaan

 


 


 


 

Temples

Bible Study Resource

There were two basic designs for places of worship in ancient times:

  • altars on a 'high place', either a mountain top or a man-made simulated mountain like the ziggurats (see image below)

  • a single, highly decorated building usually within a city, such as the Temple of Jerusalem, the temples to Athena and Zeus in ancient Greece (see below), or the Canaanite temple at Lachish.

Neither of these designs were meant to hold a congregation of worshippers in the way a modern church does. Temples belonged to the gods, not the congregation.

Temple Exteriors

 

The ziggurat at Ur, as it would have looked in ancient times

Reconstruction of the ziggurat at Ur, as it would have looked in ancient times

The ziggurat at Ur as it looks today, with reconstructed outer walls.

The ziggurat at Ur as it looks today, with reconstructed outer walls. 
This mighty temple dominated the landscape from which Abraham and Sarah came.
BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: ZIGGURATS has photographs and architectural reconstructions of this extraordinary religious building.

Reconstruction of the Temple of Athena in Athens

Reconstruction of the Temple of Athena in Athens

Reconstruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, 1st century AD

Reconstruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, 1st century AD

 


 

Reconstructions of temple interiors

 

Reconstruction of the inner chamber of the Temple of Athena in Athens

Reconstruction of the inner chamber of the Temple of Athena in Athens. The statue of Athena shows her as the goddess of war. She confronts her viewers directly, wearing Medusa's head on her leather aegis (a protective collar or cape), a statue of Nike, (victory) in her right hand and a shield in her left. The skin area of the statue was covered with ivory and the armor and drapery with gold.

 

the colossal 'Athena Parthenos'  statue by the sculptor Pheidias

Reconstruction of the colossal 'Athena Parthenos'  statue by the sculptor Pheidias

 

Reconstruction of the inner chamber of the Temple of Zeus,

Reconstruction of the inner chamber of the Temple of Zeus, 
at the ancient town of Olympia on the west coast of Greece

The ancient Greeks believed that each person had a responsibility to develop a well-educated mind and a healthy body. Games and sporting activities were therefore an important part of Greek culture. 

The city of Olympia was a center of religious worship dedicated to Zeus, and it was around the temple there that the first Olympic Games took place. During the Games, warfare was laid aside - enemies forgot their grievances and competed without rancor even if they had recently been at war.

It seems strange to us now, but the first Olympic Games were preceded by days of religious ritual. Only after these were completed could the Olympic games begin.

The Games were financially supported by rulers in Greece and in surrounding countries. Herod the Great, who ruled Palestine at the time that Jesus was born, contributed to the cost of the Olympic Games during his reign.   

 


Canaanite Temple at Lachish

The l5th century BC Canaanite temple of Lachish and its sacrificial altar had a simple layout. There was an long sanctuary with two attached rooms, only one of which was entered from the sanctuary. Excavated stairs leading to the temple cella at LachishThere was no inner room or Holy of Holies as in the Temple in Jerusalem. The roof was apparently supported on columns, probably of wood. The entrance was screened by a wall which prevented a view into the sanctuary from the outside. 

By the standards of later temples, the shrine was simple. It had a low bench, one foot high, from the front of which three rectangular blocks projected. One theory is that the cult objects stood on the bench and the projecting blocks served as altars. The existence of three projections suggest that a trinity of deities was worshipped. 

In the central axis in front of the shrine were two jars sunk in the floor, which may have been receptacles The excavated temple at Lachish into which libations were poured, while against one end of the bench was found a great pile of vessels, abandoned when the temple was rebuilt, which presumably served as containers of liquid and solid offerings. Outside the temple there were a number of pits used for the disposal of vessels which had served a similar purpose. There was also a long bench along one wall. 

The remains suggest that the deities worshipped in this temple and its successors were Resheph, the Canaanite-Syrian god of war and storm, and possibly the goddess Elath. 

 


Tantilising Religious Objects

 

Woman at thewindow, ancient ivory plaqueThe Woman at the Window

The ivory plaque at right is  similar to ones found in the ruins of the palace at Samaria, the ancient Israelite city built by King Ahab, husband of Jezebel. Delicately carved plaques were attached to furniture  and screens (Amos 6:4). 

The theme of the 'woman at the window' appears several times in the Bible, but its exact significance is lost. 

There may be a clue in the Book of Judges, where the  mother of the slaughtered enemy general Sisera stands at a window -see Deborah and Jael. She is waiting for the son who has been murdered and will never return. 

Jezebel appears at a window immediately before she is hurled down to her death (see Jehu murders Jezebel)


Small cult statue of the ancient god BaalThe Baal figurine

The image at right shows an ancient bronze figure of the rain god Baal.  Originally he would have held a club and a spear in his hands - symbols of thunder and lightning.

The Canaanites worshipped several gods; the two most important were Asherah and Baal. Asherah was the mother of Baal and is often shown with a Tree of Life. 

The word 'Baal' originally meant 'husband', and he was the source of water and fertility - hence life.  

Astarte, another goddess, was the consort of Baal. She was the protectress of the family. 

 

 


Ancient Philistine incense burners

 

Philistine incense burners

 
Burning incense was a common form of religious ritual. 

The Temple in Jerusalem 
may have had large incense burners in the forecourt of the Temple. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Bronze statuette of a bull, ancient, from northern IsraelBronze Bull statuette 

found in northern Israel at an open-air sanctuary.
The bull calf was a common fertility symbol in the ancient world.  
In the Old Testament, the Israelites grew tired of following Moses, and while he was on Mount Sinai they made a Golden Calf (see Bible People: Moses). Jeroboam set up bull images at Bethel and Dan when he formed a breakaway kingdom of Israel (1 Kings 12:28)

 


 

Cretan snake goddess or priestessMinoan snake goddess.
People sometimes interpret the woman's bare breasts as a fashion statement, saying that Minoan woman, or perhaps just Minoan priestesses, wore clothes that exposed their breasts. In fact, the bare breasts in Minoan statuettes and paintings may have been symbols for a goddess who fed and nurtured the human race, as babies are fed and nurtured by plentiful mother's milk. The earth was still venerated/worshipped as the Great Mother who fed, sheltered and protected humanity.

The snakes the goddess/priestess carries may have been a symbol of triumph over death. Snakes shed their skin and thus appear to die once a year, but then reappear again alive. 

Snakes also appeared prominently in a number of ancient fertility religions, and so may have been seen by the writers of the Bible as symbols of evil. See Eve for the story of Eve and the serpent.

 


See other fascinating links between 
Archaeology and the Bible

  

 

 

 

Ancient Religion in Bible Times  - Archaeology of The Bible
Ancient Temples, Canaanite temples, temple exteriors, interiors and statues, Bible Study Resource

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